2. Solve Problems Close in Person, Place & Time (The Research)

Updated: Apr 9


Scientific Method of Problem Solving

Integrated Work:

  • Product

  • Structure

  • Process

  • People



  1. Spear, S. J. (2002). The Essence of Just-in-Time: Imbedding diagnostic tests in work-systems to achieve operational excellence.

  2. Spear, S. J. (2002). Just-in-Time in practice at Toyota: Rules-in-Use for Building Self-Diagnostic, Adaptive Work-Systems.

  3. Tucker, A. L., Edmondson, A. C., & Spear, S. (2001). FRONT-LINE PROBLEM SOLVING: THE RESPONSES OF HOSPITAL NURSES TO WORK SYSTEM FAILURES. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2001(1), C1-C6. doi:10.5465/apbpp.2001.6133148

  4. Rother, M. (2009). Toyota Kata: Managing People for Improvement, Adaptiveness and Superior Results. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.

  5. Imai, M. (1991). Kaizen (Ky'zen): The Key to Japan's Competitive Success.

  6. II., D. K., & Smalley, A. (2011). Understanding A3 Thinking: A Critical Component of Toyota's PDCA Management System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  7. Riel, J., & Martin, R. L. (2017). Creating Great Choices: A Leader's Guide to Integrative Thinking. Brighton, MA: Harvard Business Press.

  8. Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D. (2007). The Machine That Changed the World: The Story of Lean Production-- Toyota's Secret Weapon in the Global Car Wars That Is Now Revolutionizing World Industry. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

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