top of page

Process (The Research)

Updated: Apr 9, 2020

Steve Spear, Decoding the DNA of TPS

Rule Statement:

Develop the process to deliver “just in time” (right product, right qty, right time, right cost).

Ideal Condition:

  • On-demand (actual customer pull)

  • No waiting (0 lead-time)

  • Zero Defect

  • Perfect Safety (physical, emotional, professional)

  • No Waste (over production, over processing, transport, inventory, movement, waiting, rework/defect)

Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP's):

  • Takt Time (Product): TTP’s to set the pace of production to match pace of customer demand (net available time / customer demand).

  • One Piece Flow: TTP’s to produce and move one product at a time (or in small batches) continuously across processing steps.

  • Level Pull: TTP’s to level the type & quantity of production over a fixed period of time; and a pull method of production control where downstream activities signal their needs to upstream activities.

  • Standard Work: TTP’s to define current best method for performing an activity (standard sequence, standard WIP and standard time).


  1. Dennis, P. (2007). Lean Production Simplified, Second Edition: A Plain-Language Guide to the World's Most Powerful Production System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  2. Kaplan, R. S. & Norton, D. P. (1996).The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action.Watertown, MA.Harvard Business Review Press.

  3. Liker, J. K. & Meier, D. (2007). Toyota Talent: Developing Your People the Toyota Way. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.

  4. Liker, J. K., & Meier, D. (2006). The Toyota Way Fieldbook. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  5. McLoughlin, C. (2009). Training Within Industry

  6. Ohno, T. (2019). Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  7. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development. Celeritas Pub.

  8. Rother, M., & Shook, J. (2003). Learning to See: Value Stream Mapping to Add Value and Eliminate Muda. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  9. Shingo, S., & Dillon, A. P. (1989). A Study of the Toyota Production System: From an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  10. Shook, J. & Marchwinski, C. (2014). Lean Lexicon: A Graphical Glossary for Lean Thinkers. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  11. Spear, S. J., Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System. Harvard Business Review Sept - Oct 1999.

8 views0 comments
bottom of page