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Structure (The Research)

Updated: Apr 11, 2020

Alfred D. Chandler Jr, The Visible Hand of Management

Rule Statement:

Structure the role relationships (vertical and functional) to solve problems that deliver products of value.

Ideal Condition:

  • Clear Communication

  • Perfect Information

  • Effective Decision Making

  • Disciplined Problem Solving

  • Clear Accountabilities & Authorities100%

Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP's):

  • Takt Time (Problems): TTP’s to determine the demand on the structure to meet the “expected scope & frequency of problems” to manage the cross-functional flow of product.

  • Role Alignment: TTP’s to establish the vertical and functional groupings of work to meet the demand of problem solving.

  • Role Relationship: TTP’s to define authorities and accountabilities required for effective vertical and cross-functional role relationships.

  • Role Responsibilities: TTP’s to define the specific role responsibilities (how & what)


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  2. Clement, S. D. & Clement, C. R. (2013). Its All About Work: Organizing Your Company to Get Work Done. Rj Communications.

  3. E. Jaques (2017) Requisite Organization:A Total System for Effective Managerial Organization and Managerial Leadership for the 21st Century. London, England. Routledge.

  4. Forrest, N. (2013) How Dare You Manage? Seven Principles to Close the CEO Gap, BPS Books

  5. Lee, N. R. (2017) The Practice of Managerial Leadership, Second Edition.Bloomington, Indiana. Xlibris Corporation.Lee, N. R. (2017) The Practice of Managerial Leadership, Second Edition.Bloomington, Indiana. Xlibris Corporation.

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  7. Spear, S. J. (1999).  The Toyota Production System:An Example of Managing Complex Social/Technical Systems: 5 Rules for Designing, Operating and Improving Activities, Activity - Connection and Flow-Paths. Harvard University. Boston, MA.

  8. Spear, S. J. (2004). Designing Products and Processes: Aligning Hierarchical Problem Levels with Problem-Solving Team Forms. Harvard Business School 9-605-039Spear, S. J., Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System. Harvard Business Review Sept - Oct 1999.

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