The Underlying Research of Product, Structure, Process, People


The 4 Integrated Components of an Organization

Underlying Research

  • Product: The doctrine of product is heavily shaped by the research of Clayton Christensen (disruptive vs. sustaining innovation, job to be done), Michael Porter (competitive advantage for creating & capturing value) and Donald G. Reinertsen (cost of delay, the invisible product architecture).

  • Structure: The doctrine of structure is heavily shaped by the research of Elliot Jaques (level of work, accountabilities & authorities) and Alfred D Chandler Jr. ("structure follows strategy").

  • Process: The doctrine of process is heavily shaped by the research of Steven J. Spear (rules in use - decoding the DNA of Toyota).

  • People: The doctrine of people is heavily shaped by the research of Chris Argyris (model I & II theory in use, ladder of inference, inquiry & advocacy) and Elliot Jaques (potential capability: commitment, problem solving capacity, knowledge & temperament).


Underlying Management Practitioners

  • Product: The advancement and application of product doctrine is best represented by Thomas Edison (phonograph, motion picture camera, practical electric light bulb) and Steve Jobs (Mac, iMac, Pixar, iPod, iTunes, iPhone, iPad).

  • Structure: The advancement and application of structure doctrine is best represented by Andy Grove ("guy who drove the growth phase of Silicon Valley") and Hyman G. Rickover ("Father of the Nuclear Navy").

  • Process: The advancement and application of process doctrine is best represented by Taiichi Ohno ("father of the Toyota Production System") and Henry Ford (continuous flow production).

  • People: The advancement and application of people doctrine is best represented by all of the above management practitioners: Taiichi Ohno (adoption of Training Within Industry), Thomas Edison ("organized science and teamwork to the process of invention"), Steve Jobs (challenged people and whole industries to "Think Different"), Henry Ford (pioneer of "welfare capitalism"), Andy Grove ("training is the boss's job"...and training takes place between people..."meetings are the medium of managment"), Hyman G. Rickover (his legacy of people development and technical achievement is undeniable: "United States Navy's continuing record of zero reactor accidents").



Product Research:

Clayton Christensen, Innovator's Dilemma
  1. Baldwin, Carliss Y. & Clark, Kim B.Managing in an Age of Modularity.  Harvard Business Review.  September-October 1997

  2. Christensen, C. M. (2015). The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Watertown, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

  3. Christensen, C. M., Anthony, S. D., & Roth, E. A. (2004). Seeing What's Next: Using the Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change. Brighton, MA: Harvard Business Press.

  4. Christensen, C. M., Hall, T., Dillon, K., & Duncan, D. S. (2016). Competing Against Luck: The Story of Innovation and Customer Choice. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

  5. Christensen, C., & Raynor, M. (2013). The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Watertown, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

  6. Christensen, C., Grossman, J. H., & Hwang, M. J. (2008). The Innovator's Prescription: A Disruptive Solution for Health Care. New York, NY: Mcgraw-hill.

  7. Conway, M. (1968). How Do Committees Invent?

  8. Cost of Delay. (2017). Retrieved from http://blackswanfarming.com/cost-of-delay/

  9. Kaplan, R. S., Davenport, T. H., Norton P. David Kaplan S. Robert, Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2001). The Strategy-focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment. Brighton, MA: Harvard Business Press.

  10. Klement, A. (2018, July 3). Replacing The User Story With The Job Story. Retrieved from https://jtbd.info/replacing-the-user-story-with-the-job-story-af7cdee10c27

  11. MacCormack, A. D., Rusnak, J., Baldwin, C. Y., & School, H. B. (2008). Exploring the Duality Between Product and Organizational Architectures: A Test of the Mirroring Hypothesis. The Mirroring Hypothesis: Theory, Evidence and Exceptions. (2010, February 18). Retrieved from https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/the-mirroring-hypothesis-theory-evidence-and-exceptions

  12. Magretta, J. (2012). Understanding Michael Porter: The Essential Guide to Competition and Strategy. Brighton, MA: Harvard Business Press.

  13. Maskell, B. H., Baggaley, B., & Grasso, L. (2016). Practical Lean Accounting: A Proven System for Measuring and Managing the Lean Enterprise, Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  14. Osterwalder, A.& Pigneur, Y. (2013).Business Model Generation:A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers and Challengers. Hoboken, NJ.John Wiley & Sons.

  15. Porter, M. E. "What Is Strategy?" Harvard Business Review 74, no. 6 (November–December 1996): 61–78. https://hbr.org/1996/11/what-is-strategy. Porter, M. E.Retrieved from http://www.instituteofbusinessstrategy.com/strategy.pdf

  16. Raynor, M. & Ahmed, M. (2013). The Three Rules: How Exceptional Companies Think. London, England: Penguin UK.

  17. Raynor, M. E. (2007). The Strategy Paradox: Why Committing to Success Leads to Failure (And What to do About It). New York, NY: Crown Business.

  18. Reinertsen, D. G. (1997). Managing the Design Factory: A Product Developer's Toolkit. New York, NY.  The Free Press.

  19. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development. Celeritas Pub.

  20. Ries, E. (2011). The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. Crown Books.

  21. Spiek, C., & Moesta, B. (2014). The Jobs-To-be-Done Handbook: Practical Techniques for Improving Your Application of Jobs-To-be-Done. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

  22. Ward, A. C., & II, D. K. (2014). Lean Product and Process Development, 2nd Edition. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  23. Wheelwright, S. C. (2010). Managing New Product and Process Development: Text Cases. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

  24. Wheelwright, S. C. (2010). Managing New Product and Process Development: Text Cases. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

  25. Ward, A. C., & II, D. K. (2014). Lean Product and Process Development, 2nd Edition. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  26. Wheelwright, S. C. (2010). Managing New Product and Process Development: Text Cases. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.



Structure Research:

Alfred D. Chandler Jr., The Visible Hand (Management)
  1. Capelle, R. G. (2013) Optimizing Organization Design: A Proven Approach to Enhance Financial Performance, Customer Satisfaction and Employee Engagement. Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons

  2. Clement, S. D. & Clement, C. R. (2013). Its All About Work: Organizing Your Company to Get Work Done. Rj Communications.

  3. E. Jaques (2017) Requisite Organization:A Total System for Effective Managerial Organization and Managerial Leadership for the 21st Century. London, England. Routledge.

  4. Forrest, N. (2013) How Dare You Manage? Seven Principles to Close the CEO Gap, BPS Books

  5. Lee, N. R. (2017) The Practice of Managerial Leadership, Second Edition.Bloomington, Indiana. Xlibris Corporation.Lee, N. R. (2017) The Practice of Managerial Leadership, Second Edition.Bloomington, Indiana. Xlibris Corporation.

  6. Shook, J. & Marchwinski, C. (2014). Lean Lexicon: A Graphical Glossary for Lean Thinkers. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  7. Spear, S. J. (1999).  The Toyota Production System:An Example of Managing Complex Social/Technical Systems: 5 Rules for Designing, Operating and Improving Activities, Activity - Connection and Flow-Paths. Harvard University. Boston, MA.

  8. Spear, S. J. (2004). Designing Products and Processes: Aligning Hierarchical Problem Levels with Problem-Solving Team Forms. Harvard Business School 9-605-039Spear, S. J., Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System. Harvard Business Review Sept - Oct 1999.


Process Research:

Steven J. Spear, Decoding the DNA of Toyota
  1. Dennis, P. (2007). Lean Production Simplified, Second Edition: A Plain-Language Guide to the World's Most Powerful Production System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  2. Kaplan, R. S. & Norton, D. P. (1996).The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action.Watertown, MA.Harvard Business Review Press.

  3. Liker, J. K. & Meier, D. (2007). Toyota Talent: Developing Your People the Toyota Way. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.

  4. Liker, J. K., & Meier, D. (2006). The Toyota Way Fieldbook. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  5. McLoughlin, C. (2009). Training Within Industry

  6. Ohno, T. (2019). Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  7. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development. Celeritas Pub.

  8. Rother, M., & Shook, J. (2003). Learning to See: Value Stream Mapping to Add Value and Eliminate Muda. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  9. Shingo, S., & Dillon, A. P. (1989). A Study of the Toyota Production System: From an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  10. Shook, J. & Marchwinski, C. (2014). Lean Lexicon: A Graphical Glossary for Lean Thinkers. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  11. Spear, S. J., Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System. Harvard Business Review Sept - Oct 1999.


People Research:

Elliot Jaques, Requisite Organization
  1. Capelle, R. G. (2013) Optimizing Organization Design: A Proven Approach to Enhance Financial Performance, Customer Satisfaction and Employee Engagement. Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons.

  2. Clement, S. D. & Clement, C. R. (2013). Its All About Work: Organizing Your Company to Get Work Done. Rj Communications.Forrest, N. (2013) How Dare You Manage? Seven Principles to Close the CEO Gap, BPS Books.

  3. Jaques, E. (1998). Requisite organization: a total system for effective managerial organization and managerial leadership for the 21st century. Cason Hall & Co Pub.

  4. Kaplan, R. S. & Norton, D. P. (1996).The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action.Watertown, MA.Harvard Business Review Press.

  5. Lee, N. R. (2017) The Practice of Managerial Leadership, Second Edition.Bloomington, Indiana. Xlibris Corporation.

  6. Liker, J. K. & Meier, D. (2005). Toyota Way Fieldbook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.

  7. Liker, J. K. & Meier, D. (2007). Toyota Talent: Developing Your People the Toyota Way. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.

  8. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development. Celeritas Pub.

  9. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development. Celeritas Pub.

  10. Rother, M. & Shook, J. (2003).Learning to See: Value Stream Mapping to Add Value and Eliminate Muda.  Lean Enterprise Institute.

  11. Shook, J. & Marchwinski, C. (2014). Lean Lexicon: A Graphical Glossary for Lean Thinkers. Lean Enterprise Institute.

  12. Spear, S. J., Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System. Harvard Business Review Sept - Oct 1999.

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